What is kinship testing?
Kinship testing, as defined by Orchid PRO-DNA, tests a biological relationship other than maternity or paternity.

Is it possible to determine the paternity of a child if the alleged father is deceased?
If an alleged father is deceased, it is possible to conduct a DNA test using “known” direct samples from the deceased including autopsy or pathology samples. Alternatively, an indirect test can be conducted using samples from “known” relatives of the deceased, such as his parents.

What is a "sibship" or "siblingship" test?
A DNA identity test designed to determine whether two people have biological parents in common is known as a sibship or siblingship test.

How do half siblings differ from full siblings?
Individuals are full siblings when they have the same biological parents, or half siblings when they share one biological parent (either a mother or a father).  One can be either a maternal half sibling (i.e. have the same mother) or a paternal half sibling (i.e. have the same father).

What is a grandparent test?
A grandparent test establishes whether a child is related to an assumed grandparent or grandparents. Such tests can be used to establish a family relationship when the child’s alleged father is not available for testing. The alleged father's genetic profile can be reconstructed for use in paternity testing by evaluating DNA samples obtained from his parents.

Can other types of family relationships be established through DNA identity testing?
Identity testing may be used to establish a variety of biological relationships -- for example, if an aunt or uncle is related to a niece or nephew, or if two individuals are cousins. Our highly trained staff will discuss each case with you to ensure that the most appropriate "known" relatives are tested and that the best DNA technology is used, in order to provide the most conclusive result.

Can I determine my maternal lineage?
Using mitochondrial DNA technology, it is possible to test you against another alleged maternal relative to assist in tracing your maternal lineage.

Can I determine my paternal lineage?
Using Y-STR technology, it is possible to test you against another alleged paternal relative to assist in tracing your paternal lineage. However please note that unless the Y-STR test is supplemented with additional genetic markers, the results can only be used for non-legal purposes.

Can a kinship test be performed for curiosity purposes?
Yes, a specimen collection kit can be requested and utilized for collecting samples from the parties to be tested. The collection process can be done in the privacy of your home without having to travel to a collection facility.

Do I need a lawyer?
No, Orchid PRO-DNA does not require clients to have a lawyer in order to conduct a DNA test.

Do I need a doctor’s order or court order?
Usually a doctor’s order and court order are not required. However, you will be tax-exempt with a doctor referral.

How is my personal information protected?
Your privacy and security are important to us. Your samples are shipped to us in a tamper proof bag. Entry into our DNA testing facility is by restricted access only. All samples are coded and all computer systems are secured. Results are sent to authorized individuals only and cases are only discussed with those who are authorized to do so. For the protection of the tested parties, results are not usually released over the phone except in unusual circumstances. All samples and DNA profiles are retained for a period of time, as required by accreditation guidelines but are destroyed after the requisite storage periods.

Can my DNA be used to test for a pre-existing condition that could prevent me from receiving health care insurance?
The DNA markers which are tested for relationship testing do not provide any information on any specific physical or medical condition that might affect your health care insurance.


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